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f c liave a special name for the trees tliat come 
from our farms — ^ArcticMistJ" When you order 
ArcticMist,™ you are not just buying a tree, but all 
of the time, attention, and care — from seedling to 
shipping — that goes into creating a safe, healthy, and 
iicautiful Christmas tree. 

We plant from seed to achieve maximum quality' 
control. All ArcticMist™ trees are heavily needled and 
have dense conical shapes. Their lovely blue color, rich 
fragrance, and good needle retention make them ideal 
Christmas trees. Fraser, balsam, white spaice, and pine 
(white, scotch, and red) are available. In addition, we 
are introducing fralsam, a fraser-balsam cross. Wreaths are 
also available. 

Since our famis are in New Hampshire and 
\ emiont, we harvest our trees later in the season than 
many other growers. We also do everything we can to 
minimize moisture loss after harvest and during shipping. 

You can order the number of trees that is right for 
you — from 25 to a trailer load. We can arrange shipping 
or you may pick up the trees yourself We respect your 
schedule and guarantee on time delivery. Our trees arrive 
individually wrapped and ready for sale. All you need to 
do is remove the wrappers and set the trees out — no 
broken brandies, no last minute trimming. 

io place an order, or to receive specific information 
about this year's trees: 

C^all us at 800/694-8722 or 603/237-5702. 
Send us a fax at 603/23 7-8439. 
Or write to us at 38 Bridge St., Colebrook, NH 03576. 
Our internet address is 


We know what you want for Christmas'. 

RemmiBer, you can only buy ArcikhMsP^ at Sibgo Tree Company. 



15 Seventh Anttual Plant Sale, 
The Fells, Newbury, NH; 

16 Third Annual Rockingham 
County Open Farm Day; informa- 
tion and itinerary: 603-679-5616. 
19 Vermont Association of Profes- 
sional Horticulturalists (VAPH) 
Summer Meeting and Trade Shoiv, 
Trapp Family Lodge, Stowe, VT; 
Scott Pfister at 802-224-5327. 

26 Massachusetts Certified 
Horticulturalists (MCH) Day, 
Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cam- 
bridge, MA; the MNLA office 
at 413-369-4731. 


9 Connecticut Greenhouse Growers 
Association (CGGA) "Evening at 
the Greenhouse," Grower Direct, 
Somers, CT; 203-261-9067. 

16 New Hampshire Landscape Asso- 
ciation Twilight Meeting, Gold Star 
Sod Farm and Nursery, Canter- 
bury, NH; 1-800-287-4716. 

18-October 4 Eastern States 
Exposition, 1305 Memorial Ave., 
West Springfield, MA; 413-737-2443 
(in NH, Sally Barney at 

25 New Hampshire Day, Eastern 
States Exposition. 


2 Green Industry Demonstration 
Day (to acquaint high school 
students with school programs) 
Stockbridge School of Agricul- 

ture, UMass, Amherst, MA; 


3 Hay Day: A Family Open House, 
The Fells, John Hay National 
Wildlife Refuge, Newbury, NH; 

7-9 National Lawn and Garden 
Trade Show, Fort Washington 
Expo Center, Fort Washington, 
PA; 203-847-9599. 
7-10 International Plant Propagators 
Society Eastern Regional Meeting, 
Toronto, ON, Canada; Margot 
Brigden at 860-429-6818. 
8-10 International Plug Conference; 
Kissimmee, FL; 630-208-9080. 
19-21 New England Greenhouse 
Conference, Centrum Centre, 
Worcester, MA; Henry Hunting- 
ton at 603-435-8361. 
24 Fall UNH-FFA Interscholastic 
Career Development Event, Univer- 
sity of New Hampshire, Durham, 
NH; David Howell at 603-862-1760. 
28-31 Association of Specialty Cut 
Flower Growers National Conference 
and Trade Show, Raleigh, NC; 


4-6 ERNA's Expo Fall '98, Atlantic 
City Convention Center, Atlantic 
City, NJ; 1-800-376-2463. 

17 MNLA/UMass Business Short 
Course, Holiday Inn, Boxboro, 
MA; 413-369-4731. 

18 CGGy4 "Evening at the Green- 
house," DeVylder Florist, 
Cheshire, CT; 203-261-9067. 




Tanya Jackson 

Karen Cast 

David Lane 


Kirk B. Leoni 
Bungay Jar: 
Fanciful Habitat 



Gail McWilliam 

Mike Clierim 

Jim Zablocki 



The lily pond, Bungay Jar; 
photograph by Rick Raymond 

The Plantsman Is published In early February, 
April, |une, August, October, and December 
with copy deadlines being the flist of each prior 
month. While camera-ready ads are preferred, set- 

classified advertising Is offered as 

service. We will cany a short message (no artwork 

or logos) for one or two Issues of The PUuttsman. 




3 3/8-w X 

2 1/4-h 



3 3/8-w X 

4 3/4-h 



7-w X 

2 1/4-h 



7-w X 

4 5/8-h 



7-w X 

9 l/2-h 



For further Information, please contact the editor 
Robert Parker at the UNH Research Green- 
houses, Durham, NH 03824, 603-862-2061; or PO 
Box S, Newflelds, NH 03856, 603-778-8353. 


> 1 f i 


"',& SERVICE" 

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See our wide 
selection of trees, 
evergreens and 
shrubs More than 
1 .000 vaneiics 
available Delivery 

throughout New 
England Located 
m Chichester NH 
(13 miles nonh of 
Concord) Call us 
at 603-435-6660 

We're very serious about 
biological pest control. 

Are you ready? 

The Green Spot, Ltd. 





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Looking Ahead 

on the Fourth of July 

Peter van Berkum 

I'm writing this on the fourth of 
July, a month and a day before 
our summer meeting. So you're 
reading this after the meeting and 
some of the things I'm looking 
ahead to have already passed. 

"The spring rush is about over 
and it's time to refocus on the en- 
dowment. We can look back at 
the highly successful year we just 
finished, in which we received 
pledges for over $85,000. But we 
now have to look ahead to the 
challenge of finally reaching our 
$100,000 goal. Just $15,000 to go. 
It's so close!!! 

Some of you will have seen the 

skit at the summer meeting. Maybe 
this will inspire more pledges. 
Maybe, in the next issue, I can 
write that we're over the top — 
that we've reached our goal. I 
hope so. It's been a great team ef- 
fort — a fun project — and we thank 
everyone who's been involved. 

We're now setting up guide- 
lines for the awarding of 
grants — also an interesting, re- 
warding project. But the real 
sense of accomplishment will 
come when we see the money 
being put to use." 

For those wishing to contribute, 
checks made out to "New Hamp- 
shire Horticultural Endowment" 
can be sent to New Hampshire 
Horticultural Endowment, 7316 
Pleasant Street, Loudon, NH 03301. 

New Hampshire 


the seed of a great Goal: $100,000 

idea is growing into 90,000 

a reality! J|[ 80,000 




Membership Drive! 

■■^^' We are looking for a few good new members. 

WHO DO YOU KNOW? Pass tliis on to someone who'd benefit from membership. The more 
members w^e have, the more we can do for you and our industry. 

WHY |OIN? Twilight Meetings. Visit horticuhural operations around the state, talk with your 
colleagues, and see how another business solves the same problems you have. Summer Trade 
Show. Our big event! Meet directly with your suppliers, make new contacts, and enjoy a great 
barbecue. The Plantsman. The best horticultural association publication in the Northeast. Free 
with every paid membership. Legislative Issues. More members means more clout on the 
political front in Concord. 








Nursery Florist Greenhouse Garden Center Other 

Wholesale Retail Would you be willing to serve on a NHPGA Committee? Yes No 

MEMBERSHIP CATEGORIES (please check one) 

MEMBER: Someone actively engaged in the horticulture industry or allied professional. Annual dues $35.00. 

STUDENT MEMBER; Full-time student of horticulture-related studies. Annual dues $15.00. 

EMPLOYEE MEMBER: Employee of member firm in good standing. Annual dues $15.00 

Please send application and check to: New Hampshire Plant Growers' Association 56 Leavitt Rd. Hampton, 
NH 03842 


Notes of Thanks 

"Thank you for the presentation 
you provided at Edgewater Farm 
for one of New Hampshire Agri- 
culture in the Classroom's teacher 
training workshops. The teachers 
learned a lot and were glad to ex- 
perience hands-on activities they 
can do with their students. They 
are excited to have materials to 
use in the classroom as well as to 
learn about community resources 
for field trips and support. 
Thanks again for a successful day. 
We look forward to working with 
you in the future." 

Lisa Derby Oden 
Education Director 
Ag in the Classroom 

Ann and Pooh Sprague's Edge- 
water Farm, Plainfield, was the set- 
ting for an Ag in the Classroom 

workshop on May 20. Ann and Pooh 
showed the teachers the farm, stress- 
ing the importance of getting an ac- 
curate picture of today's agriculture 
into the classroom; Bob Rimol pre- 
sented some possible classroom dem- 
onstrations. As Lisa says, it was a 
successful day. 


Another successful event was 
the NHPGA twilight meeting at 
Churchill's Garden Center in 
Exeter on June 18. Over 100 
people feasted on lobster, clams, 
chicken, etc., listened to Cheryl 
Smith discuss botrytis and its 
cures, and toured the center. 
Churchill's is going through a 
period of evolution as it finds 
ways to use its limited space 
more efficiently while increasing 
the quality and variety of ser- 

vices. The well-fed crowd found 
much to learn. 

Thanks go to Jim and Jeanne 
Moser and the staff at Churchill's 
for an evening that was both in- 
formative and a lot of fun. 

For Those Who Want More 

Thanks to Faye Cragin, com- 
puter specialist, and Nancy 
Adams, our liaison with Exten- 
sion, we're on the WEB. Selec- 
tions from The Plantsman are on 
a NHPGA page on the UNH Co- 
operative Extension WEB site. 
The address of the Ornamental 
Horticulture Publications section 
of this site is <http://ceinfo.>. For more 
information, Faye Cragin can be 
reached by phone (603-862-4579), 
fax (603-862-1585), or e-mail 

Northern Grown 

Trees Evergreens Shrubs 

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Located at junction of routes 22 & 1 14 

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Phone (207) 839-4262 or 839-6364 

Fax 207-839-2290 

We specialize in growing specimen plant materials. 










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HB 170— It Passed! 

On June 26, 1998, Governor 
Shaheen signed into legislation 
House Bill 170 which exempts 
freestanding greenhouses from 

The bill reads in part: 

1. New Section, Property Tax Ex- 
emptions for Certain Greenhouse. 
Amend RSA 72 by inserting after 
12-c the following section: 

I. Demountable, plastic-covered 
greenhouses shall be exempt from 
taxation if all of the following 
qualifications are met: 

a. removal of the demountable 
greenhouse will not affect the util- 
ity of the underlying real estate; 

b. the demountable greenhouse 
is not permanently affixed to the 
underlying real estate with con- 
crete or similar non-portable foot- 

c. removal of the demountable 
greenhouse can be accomplished 
without significant damage to the 
greenhouse and will not render 
the greenhouse unfit for subse- 
quent use as a demountable 

d. the demountable greenhouse 
is specifically designed, con- 
structed, and used for culture, 
propagation, and protection of ag- 
ricultural products; 

e. the demountable greenhouse 
is not used for the retail sale of 
any non-agricultural products. 

II. For purposes of this section, 
the term "demountable plastic 
covered greenhouse" may include: 

a. framework; 

b. coverings; 

c. electric services not fixed to 
the underlying real estate; 

d. benches; 

e. a source of heat not fixed to 
the underlying real estate; 

f. a source of ventilation not 
fixed to the underlying real 

g. an irrigation system not 
fixed to the underlying real 

This act shall take effect April 1, 

The NHPGA would like to 
thank the following with their 
help with this new legislation: 
Brenda Clemens of the Farm Bu- 
reau, Doug Cole, Henry and Jeff 
Huntington, Bob Rimol, Dave 
Seavey, Peter van Berkum, and all 
of the other people who helped 

make this proposed legislation 
into law. If you have any ques- 
tions, call Bob Rimol at Rimol 
Greenhouse Systems at 629-9004. 


Changes for Extension 

Three UNH Cooperative Exten- 
sion educators recently retired af- 
ter long careers here; a fourth has 
left to continue elsewhere. 

Jim Mitchell joined Extension in 
1964 as an Extension agronomist 

Fall at Thompson School 

The Thompson School at UNH offers a wide selection of 
courses in ornamental horticulture, a portion of which is 
listed below. Half-term 1 runs from September 2 through October 
23; half-term 2, from October 26 to December 14. Some courses 
may have prerequisites. 

HT205 Introduction to Plant Materials F 8-11 2 cr 

HT207 Plant Structure and Function MW 10-11, T 10-12 3 cr 

HT215 Soils and Land Use MWF 11-12, Th 10-12 (half-term 1) 

2 cr 
HT217 Soils and Plant Nutrition MWF 11-12, Th 10-12 

(half-term 2) 2 cr 
HT227 Horticulture Facilities Management M 8-9, 2 lab hours 

arranged 2 cr 
HT237 Pest Management: Weeds M 1-4 (half-term 1) 1 cr 
HT239 Pest Management: Control Applications M 1-4 

(half-term 2) 1 cr 
HT240 Introduction to Floral Design TTh 5:30-8:30pm 

(half-term 1) 2 cr 
HT243 Floral Design Seminar TTh 5:30-8:30pm (half-term 2) 2 cr 
HT245 Flower Shop Management W 5:30-8:30pm 2 cr 
HT254 Water Management F 10-1 2 cr 
HT257 Woody Landscape Plants W 8-11 2 cr 
HT261 Interior Plants and Plantscaping M 6-9pm 2 cr 
HT263 Landscape Construction and Maintenance W 11-5 4 cr 
HT275 Floricultural Crop Production TTh 8-10 3 cr 

To enroll, phone the Division of Continuing Education at 603- 
862-2015 or access on-line at <>. For informa- 
tion on course content, the part-time degree program, or the Di- 
ploma in Landscape Horticulture, call 603-862-1035. 



He's well-known for his corn 
and alfalfa cultivar evaluations 
and his herbicide and weed man- 
agement strategies. His help and 
friendship have been extended to 
countless individuals throughout 
the Northeast. 

Dave Sorenson assumed the role 

of Extension educator in Carroll 
County in the summer of 1969. 

In the agricultural area, he ini- 
tiated the first statewide effort to 
remove unwanted pesticides from 
farms before they caused contami- 
nation; he was involved in issues 
concerning honeybees and was in- 
strumental in the development of 

small fruit schools. He was the 
first from New Hampshire ever to 
serve as president of the National 
Association of County Agents. Re- 
cently he has provided leadership 
in The Mount Washington Valley 
Economic Council, developing a 
number of educational programs 
to help communities and busi- 

Jolly Farmer' 


BARK MULCH... by the tractor-trailer load 

Hemiock • Cedar • Mix ■ Premium Mix • Dark Mix 


Our own Bark Mulch in 2 and 3 cuft bags 

Hemlock • Pine-Spnjce • Cedar • Spruce-HemJock 
Dark Bark 

Pine Bark Nuggets and Mini Nuggets & 
Hemlock Bark Nuggets and Mini Nuggets 

Now made in our plant at Poland Spring. ME 
Soils & Manures 


Box 527 • Route 122 • Poland Spring, Maine 04274 

Phone: 1-800-879-2275 • FAX: 1-207-998-2006 

"Integrity, quality, & reliable service since 1967" 

''Wholesale growers 
and Suppliers'' 


Annual Plugs 
Perennial Plugs 
Rooted Cuttings 
Bedding Plants 
Hanging Baskets 

Potted Annuals 

Hardy Mums 

Pot Mums 

Cyclamen ..liners, finished 

Poinsettias... cuttings, finished 

Box 56 ■ Route 10 ■ East Lempster. NH 03605 
Phone- 1-800-863-8300 • FAX: 1-800-863-7814 



Made and used by Jolly Farmer 

Box 56 ■ Route 10 • East Lempster, NH 03605 
Phone: 1-800-565-4746 • FAX: 1-800-966-4746 


Gold Star Whalesale Nunery is a family owned business. Since 1952 we 
ofFenng the finest wholesale planting materials to landscape connxton 

N£. area along with the one element that tnily sets 

the competition- jervice. 
Gold Star welcomes your comments and suggestions. 

one-stop for the best in wholesale landscape supplies. 


\11A Exit 18, 1-93, 1/2 mile ■ lei: 8UU-2» 



nesses in Carroll County. 

Charlie Williams became the 
state's Extension specialist in 
ornamental horticulture at 
UNH in 1969. He worked with 
various trade groups and was 
one of the original organizers 
of the New England Green- 
house Conference and the UNH 
Greenhouse Open House.. Ac- 
tivities included wildlife habitat 
improvement and aspects of hor- 
ticulture therapy. Since 1975, 
he's planned the plantings at 
Prescott Park in Portsmouth. 

Bill Zweigbaum, Extension 
specialist, agriculture business 
management, is not retiring, 
but moving on, "to a great op- 
portunity." He'll be a business 
consultant for First Pioneer 
Farm Credit. Based in their 
Enfield, Connecticut, office, 
he'll be on the road, covering 
the territories of five offices: 
"It's all one-on-one consulting, 
the thing I love to do best." 
He's moved to New York — to 
Kinderhook, in the Hudson 
River valley. There's an apple 
orchard nearby. He can be 
reached at 1-800-562-2235. 

All have had lasting impact on 
the state's Green Industry. We 
give them best wishes for contin- 
ued active and interesting lives. 

A Gift to Horticulture 

Maggie Paine 

A man who made his living as a landscaper and horticulturist for 
nearly fifty years has made a gift of $i million to the University 
of New Hampshire's plant biology program to help growers through- 
out the state. 

The gift from Raymond Tuttle of Wolfeboro will support teaching, re- 
search, and outreach in the University's horticulture program. This will 
include curriculum development, student internships, and support for fac- 
ulty, as well as plant breeding, tissue culture, biotechnology, greenhouse 
management, and design. Outreach efforts will raise public awareness of 
horticulture and assist the region's growers. Where possible, research will 
focus on environmentally friendly horticultural practices. 

Funds will also be used for collaborations with New Hampshire 
Public Television, including internships, program acquisition, and lo- 
cally produced programs for horticulturists and home gardeners. 

Tuttle joined his father's Lakes Region landscaping and caretaking 
business in 1947 ^^^ ^^^ active in the horticulture business in New 
Hampshire for nearly half a century. He retired in 1992. 

"I see UNH as a place where growers can not only find students to 
hire but also learn about materials and methods that can help their 
businesses," Tuttle says. "The University is doing more and more work 
with New Hampshire plant growers, and I hope to encourage that." 

This year, interest earned on the Anna and Raymond Tuttle Environ- 
mental Horticulture Fund will be used to hire a technician to work in 
greenhouse production technology, especially management of pH and irri- 
gation, and integrated pest management for the ornamental horticulture 
industry. In addition, the fund will support two thirty-minute television 
programs on the changing face of agriculture. One will focus on water 
and agriculture, the other on ornamental horticulture. 

"Ray's tremendously generous gift has given us the resources to un- 
dertake many initiatives to help growers and to promote horticulture to 
the public," says Paul Fisher, assistant professor of plant biology. "This 
gift will ensure horticulture will always have a central role at the Univer- 
sity, and that's essential if we're to fulfill our land-grant mission." 

Maggie Paine writes for UNH publications. 


109-111 Essex St., Haverhill, MA 01830, (978)373-6838, (800)244-0332 
We cater to the small and medium size nursery in any quantity desired 

1. New heavy grade domestic burlap sqs. 5. 
untreated and no-rot treated 6. 

2. Open burlap bags 7. 

3. New windbreak burlap 8. 

4. Balling bags 9. 

Wire baskets 

Flat-folded burlap basket liners 

Truck covers 

Sisal twine and poly twine 

Woven polypropylene sqs. 



Bigger and Better — 

The 1998 New England Green- 
house Conference will be held 
October 19-21 at the new Cen- 
trum Centre in Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts. The larger space encour- 
ages a larger trade show — as of 
late June, over 130 vendors had 
signed up. 

The program looks equally 
prom-ising. There are three days 
of four concurrent sessions on 
such topics as production, propa- 
gation, marketing, pest manage- 
ment, greenhouse engineering, 
and niche crops. 

Speakers from the area are 
Paul Fisher ("Tools for Fine-Tun- 
ing Lily Production: Height Con- 
trol, Timing, Nutrition") and 
Henry Huntington (Proven Win- 
ners); Doug Cole will talk about 

some of the new material he's 
found on his travels. Doug also 
joins Chris Beytes to discuss 
"Greenhouse Automation: the Real- 
ity and the Dream" (Doug presents 
Reality); Tom McElroy and Barbara 
Pierson discuss snapdragon pro- 
duction; Cheryl Smith and Leanne 
Pundt, IPM for perennials. 

Monday's speakers include 
Gary Grueber ("Perennials for 
Fall Sales"), Kurt Fromherz 
("Marketing Trends for the Re- 
tailer"), and Chris Beytes ("How 
to Track Hot! New! Trends"). 
Tuesday's program includes Allan 
Armitage ("Specialty Annuals — 
Not All Annuals are Bedding 
Plants"), Royal Heins ("Perennial 
Production: Cold Requirement, Ju- 
venility, Photoperiod, Height 
Control"), and John Bartok and 
Rich McAvoy ("What's New with 

Subirrigation"). In the evening, 
Alan Stevens speaks on "Labor: 
Working Smarter, Not Harder" 
and Gary Grueber on "Mixed 
Container Gardening." 

Wednesday's speakers include 
Terri Starman ("Hanging Baskets: 
Combinations that Work and How 
to Do It!") and Vincent Naab 
("Marketing to Mass Markets"). 

These are a few: "Bigger and 
Better" is used a lot, but in this 
case, it may actually be accurate. 
You may have already received a 
brochure giving details and direc- 
tions. For more, call Larry Car- 
ville at 860-872-2095 or Henry 
Huntington at 603-435-8361. 

The Tulips Come North 

The Dutch Bulb program in the 
United States is moving from Ra- 

Let Rough Brothers' 

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Call the experts at Rough Brothers for information and 
technical assistance on these quality products. 
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• Alcoa Alunninum Fin Heating 

• Heating and ventilating equipment 

• Maintenance supplies, glass, parts 
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leigh. North Carolina, to Cornell 
University, Ithaca, New York. (In 
recent years, the program has 
been headed by August A. De 
Hertogh, who is retiring as pro- 
fessor of horticultural science at 
North Carolina State University in 

The announcement was made 
by the Dutch Wholesalers Asso- 
ciation for Flowerbulbs and Nurs- 
ery Stock and by the North 
American Flower-bulb Wholesal- 
ers Association, made up of mem- 
bers of the Dutch and North 
American flower bulb and green- 
house industries. 

The announcement notes that 
New York state has various cli- 
mate zones that are available for 
research and is in a part of the 
country with a rich tradition in 
flower bulb horticulture. 

Cornell has selected William B. 
Miller of Clemson University to 

direct the bulb program. Miller 
has, with collaborators and stu- 
dents, published a number of pa- 
pers on bulbous plants and other 
floricultural crops and a book, 
Easter and Hybrid Lily Production, 
published by Timber Press. Miller 
will join the Cornell faculty late 
this summer. 

For more, contact Blaine Fried- 
lander, Jr., at 607-255-3290. 

Zinnias — tiie Best 

{Greenhouse Grower, June, 1998) 

Greenhouse Grower awarded its 
1998 Medal of Excellence to Sakata 
Seed America's Profusion zinnias. 
Profusions are a cross between 
Zinnia angustifolia and Z. elegans. 
In the greenhouse, early uniform 
plants can be produced for sale in 
ten weeks or less and respond well 
to growth regulators. Plants are 
adaptable to pack and larger con- 
tainer presentations. Hot, trendy 
colors ('Orange' and 'Cher-ry') 
should increase impulse sales. 

In the garden, Profusions per- 
form well in a range of climates — 
in heat, drought, and humidity. 
Although Z. elegans varieties are 
susceptible to foliar diseases, the 
Profusions seem exceptionally re- 
sistant. Low-maintenance, heavy 
blooming, new colors are in the 
works. Congratulations. 





Spring Annuals • Geraniums • Hanging Baskerts 
Perennials and Foliage Plants 3" to 10" 

P.O. Box 360 • Alton NH 03809 • Tel: 603-875-4444 
Located on Route 28, 1 V4 mile south of the Alton Traffic Circle 

Oziniers Bruce and Linda Holmes 

The More You Grow, The More You Know. 


fe ve been in this business a long lime. We know our 
cusiomer's needs and demands. It doseni make a difference of liie 
time of year or the size of llie project Northeast Nursery covers it | 
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consider Northeast Nursery the best One-Slop shopping for all 
your landscape and green supplies. 

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Supplying Fine Plant Material & Landscape Supplies 

234 Newbury Street, Rt. 1 South 

Peabody, MA 01960 

Tel. (508) 535-6550 Fax (508) 535-5247 


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The Green Spot 

Operation Clover 

I'd like to think I was outstanding in my 
field . . . but I don't have a field, just a garden. 
And at the very edge of that garden is some clover (a 
trap-crop, if you will). And on that clover live some 
aphids. I'm going to release some ladybugs out there. 
Wanna come with me? I'll show you how. 

It's raining gently this evening. The clover is 
glossy from the rain. It's warm. It's muggy. This is 
the perfect time to release ladybugs. They'll probably 
devour the aphids. There are other pests out there 
too, but the ladybugs will probably only prey on the 
aphids— that's what they prefer. If they do happen to 
eat something else, itTl be a bonus, I guess. 

I have a whole bag of ladybugs, but I'm not go- 
ing to release them all. Putting out too many at once 
can have a negative effect: they may aggregate, which 
would aggravate . . . me. Then I'd have to collect and 
re-release them. I took out just what I needed to do 
the job — while they were still in the fridge and man- 
ageable. If I did the separation while they were out 
of cold storage, I'd have a real mess on my hands: 
ladybugs everywhere! 

Out in the garden, I'm careful to sprinkle the 
ladybugs evenly throughout the clover. But I'm con- 
centrating them a little on the aphid hot spots. It's 
often discouraging to watch ladybugs just after a re- 
lease. I'm watching some drink warm rainwater; oth- 
ers are stepping over aphids to get somewhere. Some 
are just laying on their backs twirling stuff with their 
six tiny black legs. Some are dead. I just don't get it 
sometimes. I wish they'd perform for me. I know 
what will happen, though — they will perform. 

Well, that's it. That's a ladybug release. No big 
deal — it was kinda fun, I suppose. My kids loved it! 
A few evenings from now, I'll release another batch, 
then another a few evenings after that, and so on, as 
necessity dictates. If it's not raining, I'll water the 
plants — whatever it takes, but I will release my 
beetles. And the routine will be the same. 

I may note the presence of orange, football- 
shaped ladybug eggs and the subsequent black, alli- 
gator-like larvae in a week or two. The aphids will 
likely diminish, the clover probably thrive, and most 
of the ladybugs fly away. Oh well. They won't do it 
in front of me, but they'll do it all the same. 

Mike Cherim, president of The Green Spot, Depart- 
ment of Bio-Ingenuity, ^j Priest Road, Nottingham, 
NH oj2go-6204, can be reached at 60^-^42-8^2^. 


Red Maple 

) .5-3 ' caliper 
Varieties Red Sunset", Autumn Flame " 

(PP. 2377), and Armstrong 

specimen quality, own root (no incompatibility 

problems), high limbed for street and commercial use 

604 Main Street, Cromwell, CT 06416 
Phone (203) 635-5500 FAX (203) 635-3685 

j|fl|U Trees Since 1929 

^illane 9?ursenes,^nc. 

Growing SOO Acres of New England s Finest Trees i Shrubs 


Fall Floivering 



271 North Village Road, Loudon, NH 03301 
Phone 603-783-9561 Fax 603-783-9562 


?*?-^ Garden Center 

Consultations and Landscaping Designs 
Greenhouses, Nursery, Craft, and Christmas Shop 

656 South Mammoth Road (Rte. 28A) 

Manchester, NH 03109 

(603) 625-8298 


Nurseries & Greenhouses 

Route 85, PO Box 334, Exeter, NH 03833 
(603) 772-3698 

Wholesale & Retail 

Annuals, Perennials, Nursery Stock 

Blue Heron Images 


Catalogs. Brochures. Annual Reports. Web Sites. Special Events 

Richard H Raymond 

Specializing in Horiiaillural Images 

Traditional and Digital Photographic Services 

: Heron Images, 1 Corauble Road, Durham. XH 03824 Phone: (603) 659-7313 

Rolling Green 

Landscaping & Nursery 

500 varieties of perennials ■»> Annuals & herbs 

Ornamental trees, shrubs & vines *> Trellises 

Wholesale prices available *> Call for 1 998 listing 

64 Breakfast Hill Rd., Greenland, NH (Next to 1-95) 

Perennials, Plugs, Geraniums, Prefinished Mums 
Bulbs, Holiday Crops, Flowering Plants 

Joseph Giannino Co. 

Representing Fine Growers 
of Quality Plant Material 

P.O. Box 757, Rowley, Massachusetts 01969 
Telephone: 978/948-8167; Fax: 508/948-8167 


ohrubs, Roses 


George M. Timm 

Davis Brook Farm 

io6 Bonds Comer Road, P.O. Box 476 
Hancock, New Hampshire 03449-0476 
Phone/Fax 603-5x5-4718 

Ball Seed Company 

Your Source for Superior Plant and Seed Material 

Annual plugs, geraniums, "Vigor Indexed" seed, 

spring plants, perennials, pot plants, holiday crops, 

prefinished flatsA hanging baskets, and more! 

David Giurleo 

324 How/ard Street, Northboro, MA 01 532 
Phone: 508-393-4534, Fax: 508-393-0003 
Toll Free Pager: 800-719-9360 




Archie Stecnburgh 


Route 10, Haverhill, NH 03765 

Peter Callioras, C.A 1 

Calef Highway (Lee), Dover, NH 03820 




Air Is the Secret 

Many growers have recently been discussing 
soil mix and how porosity fits into the 
equation. Porosity is "the ratio, usually ex- 
pressed as a percentage, of the volume of a 
material's pores to its total volume." It's better 
to look at the amount of air space a soil mix 
has. This is defined as "the amount of air a 
media has after it had reached container capac- 
ity"— or, simply put, how much air is left after 
the media is saturated. 

A good soilless mix should have a total po- 
rosity of 75-80% and air space of 20-30%. How- 
ever, in peat-based mixes, these numbers are 
short-lived. Most peat-based mixes will shrink 
by 25% after one or two waterings — and as 
much as 50-60% over the life of the crop. This 
shrinkage will reduce your air space by up to 

A way to reduce this shrinkage is to reduce 
the amount of peat and add either aged pine 
bark or coconut coir. Both have less shrinkage 
than peat (coir has 50 % less). 

D.R. Fonteno from North Carolina State Uni- 
versity has devised and standardized a test to 
detect the total porosity and the amount of air 
space in mixes. Why this standardization is im- 
portant is that these numbers will vary accord- 
ing to the size of the pot and how the mix is 
handled. The height of the container will dic- 
tate the air space of the mix. Going from a 
four-inch pot to a six-inch pot increases air 
space by 50%, simply by increasing the vertical 
column of soil and gravity. Try this with a wet 
sponge. Lay it flat and let water drip out. If 
you turn it on edge, more water will drip out, 
making more air available. 

Why is all this important? Plants root where 
there is air, not water. Water is important in 
keeping cuttings or seedlings from drying out, 
but air is the secret. Mixes that are more com- 
pacted or excessively wet allow little air space 
and, of course, little rooting. 

Jim Zablocki, technical manager of the Northern 
Horticultural Group, Scotts Company, can be 
reached at 60^-224-^58^. 


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^ .-^^ '■■-^1 ■■ 

Peonies Rediscovered 


Peonies are one of the most timeless gar 
den plants. When spoken about, they 
are often discussed as a category in- 
and-of-themselves, not as a woody 
shrub or an herbaceous perennial. Even 
though peonies have had enduring 
popularity, they've been seen as a traditional old- 
fashioned plant. They can usually be found in the 
landscape of older homes in the northern United 
States and Canada and in many cemeteries. In 1994, 
Martha Stewart featured peonies in Martha Stewart 
Living and since then, peonies are being rediscovered 
as a cut flower and a landscape plant. 

As a landscape plant, they are a nice shrubby pe- 
rennial that easily fits in a mixed bed. They provide 
a beautiful display of fragrant flowers early in the 
season and green foliage for the rest. Peonies are a 
very adaptable plant that will grow and bloom un- 
der a wide range of climatic conditions. Most com- 
mon species and hybrids require cold temperatures 
to fulfill a chilling requirement before they will reli- 
ably bloom every year. Hardiness Zone 5 is about 
the warmest the climate can be for the plants to 
bloom. They can be grown in the south but usually 

will not bloom. In talking with peony growers fur- 
ther north, most have said that the colder it is, the 
bigger and better the plants and blooms are. 

As with any perennial, the planting site and soil 
bed preparation are of utmost importance — especially 
since they may be in the ground undisturbed for 
many years. The ones at my grandparents' grave are 
more than sixty years old. Ample sun and a well- 
drained heavier soil are keys to site selection. The 
bed should be well dug and the plants placed with 
the growing points (or eyes) facing up about two 
inches below ground level. Roots are usually dug in 
the early fall and planted soon thereafter, although 
fall planting may not be possible in northern areas. 
Once planted, peonies usually do fine on their own. 
There are different schools of thought about how to 
fertilize peonies. It usually depends on how they are 
being used. If they are being used for cut-flowers, 
root production, or forced in pots for spring bedding 
plant sales, a fertilization program will be part of the 
production practices. For the home landscape, 1 must 
relate a story I heard about a well-known peony 
breeder, Myron Bigger. When someone asked Mr. 
Bigger about fertilizing peonies, he asked them 


where the best-looking peonies grow. They both 
agreed that it was in the cemeteries. The question 
then was how the peonies in the cemetery were fer- 
tilized. The answer is not what you think, but that 
they aren't. 

Peonies can be grouped into four categories: her- 
baceous, tree, inter- 
sectional or Itoh hy- 
brids, and species. 
Herbaceous types are 
your standard gar- 
den type that every- 
one is familiar with. 
They are in the 
Paeon section of the 
genus Paeonia. There 
are thousands of cul- 
tivars of these. Most 
are selections of the 
species Paeonia offici- 
nalis and P. lactiflora 
and hybrids of these 
two as well as with 
other species. 

Tree peonies are 
grafted woody shrubs 
that usually overwin- 
ter without dying 
back. They are in the 
Moutan section of the 
genus Paeonia. They 
usually flower earlier 
than the herbaceous 
types because they 
often have a shorter 
chilling requirement. 
They are known for 
their large showy 

The next group is 
the intersectional, or 
Itoh, hybrids. Mr. 

Toichi Itoh was the first person to successfully 
produce an intersectional hybrid between the 
Moutan (tree) type and Paeon (herbaceous) type. 
The roots look like tree peony roots, but the top of 
the plant looks like an herbaceous plant, with the 
flowers having the rich true reds and yellows of 
the tree peonies. 

The last group is the species. These are in all the 
section of the genus Paeonia including Moutan, Paeon 
and Onaepia.This is usually the realm of the true 
peony connoisseur. These are often rare and sources 
are hard to find. Since the Iron Curtain came down, 
many new species are being introduced in the West. 
Some have ornamental value but others may only of- 
fer germplasm for developing new hybrids. 
For commercial plant growers, herbaceous peonies 

As with any perennial, 
the planting site and soil bed preparation 

are of utmost importance — 

especially since they may be in the ground 

undisturbed for many years. 

The ones at my grandparents' grave 
are more than sixty years old. 

are a plant in demand as both a landscape plant and 
as cut flowers. The question is how are you going to 
sell them. Traditionally, peonies are usually sold as 
bare roots in the fall or spring. Now many are sold 
as containerized plants in the spring. This creates an 
instant landscape and provides the gardener a guide 
on how deep to 
plant. These are of- 
ten sold by color 
rather than cultivar. 
If sold by cultivar, 
they often command 
a higher price. 

The tree, Itoh, 
intersectional, and 
species peonies are 
for a very special- 
ized upscale market. 
The plants are hard 
to come by and ex- 
pensive to propa- 
gate. Most are sold 
mail-order by the 
hybridizer or collec- 
tor. I see them as a 
specialty crop pro- 
duced as a sideline. 

In the past five 
years, three new 
books have been 
published on peo- 
nies. The American 
Peony Society also 
has a wealth of 
knowledge and con- 
tacts. It is nice that 
gardeners are redis- 
covering the carefree 
versatility of a plant 
with such beautiful 
fragrant blooms. 

Peony resources include The Peony, by Alice Harding, 
updated by Roy G. Klehm; The Gardener's Guide to 
Growing Peonies (with listing of peony sources), by 
Martin Page; and Peonies (also with a listing of 
sources), by Allan Rogers. All are published by Timber 
Press, 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 
97204 (telephone: 503-227-2878). 

The American Peony Society can be contacted by writ- 
ing to Mrs. Greta Kessenich, 250 Interlachen, Hopkins, 
MN 55343. 

Karen L.B. Gast, associate professor and extension horti- 
culturist, postharvest and marketing at Kansas State 
University, has been conducting postharvest research on 
several herbaceous peony cultivars the past four years. 
Her e-mail address is 


New Varieties 
of Carnivorous Plants 


Several new varieties of car- 
nivorous plants have been 
introduced in the past year 
or so and some have been fea- 
tured in recent issues of American 
Nurseryman and Horticulture. This 
brief article describes four new 
varieties, lists sources for li\e 
plants, and provides addition 
information. The ability to easily 
propagate new hybrids, especially 
by tissue culture, should lead to 
increased availability of these 
ever-popular plants. 

About a year ago, the Atlanta 
Botanical Garden released a robust all-red form of 
Venus Fly Trap called 'Akai Ryu' (or Red Dragon) in 
which the entire plant becomes burgundy-colored in 
sufficient light. I have grown this variet)' under fluo- 
rescent light, on a windowsill, and in the green- 
house. Propagation for commercial release of this 
cultivar was being handled by Agristarts III of 
Apoka, Florida. Plants are now available from the 
specialized mail order nurseries that cater to carnivo- 
rous plant enthusiasts. The Carnivorous Plant Newslet- 
ter , sponsored by the International Carnivorous 
Plant Society, lists these nurseries annually. Several 
of these nurseries have websites and provide online 
ordering over the Internet. 

The December 15, 1997, issue of American Nursery- 
man [v. 186 (12) p. 77] introduces a new cultivar of 
pitcher plant named 'Ladies in Waiting.' It's a 
multispecies hybrid developed by Rob Gardner at 
UNC-Chapel Hill and Larry Mellichamp at UNC- 
Charlotte. This variety is also featured as a "TOP 
PICK" in the February, 1998 issue of Horticulture 
[v. 95 (2) p. 34-36]. It's a vigorous upright green 
pitcher that reaches 1 1/2 feet high. The upper por- 
tion of the pitcher has an open hood with fluted 
edges, lettuce green interior with white speckling. 

and an overlay of maroon mar- 
bling. It is hardy in zones 6 to 
9. The source is given as Niche 
Gardens in Chapel Hill, which 
maintains an online ordering 
system at its website. This nurs- 
ery also sells another smaller 
hybrid from the same team 
called 'Dixie Lace,' which has 
prominent red veins. I bought a 
small plant of 'Dixie Lace' from 
Larry Mellichamp himself at a 
meeting last year and have been 
growing it in a window sill en- 
vironment for several months. 
The January 1, 1998, issue of American Nurseryman 
[v. 187 (1) p. 14] has a story about a new "All-Green 
Purple Pitcher Plant" (named Sarracenia purpurea 
subsp. venosa var. burkii forma alba) to be introduced 
by the Atlanta Botanical Garden this year. In reality, 
the scientific name given is incorrect. The actual 
name is Forma luteola. This is an all-green (anthocya- 
nin-free) form discovered originally growing wild, I 
believe. Seedlings are currently for sale from the At- 
lanta Botanical Garden at $25 each. 

All of these varieties are being formally described 
in the Carnivorous Plant Newsletter whose sponsoring 
society serves as the International Registration Au- 
thority for carnivorous plants. By the time you read 
this, three of these varieties will be growing in the 
UNH greenhouses. The greenhouses are open to the 
public. I will add the fourth variety, the all-green 
pitcher plant, as soon as I receive it. 

David Lane, biological sciences librarian, Biological 
Sciences Library, Kendall Hall, University of New 
Hampshire, 129 Main St., Durham, NH 03824-3590, 
can be reached at 603-862-3718 or 

Illustration by Kristina Bilonick 



Moving the Business into the Next Generation 


Family businesses generate all the challenges 
faced by other small businesses, but add the 
elements of family dynamics to the mix. Sev- 
enty percent of family businesses never make it to 
the second generation. Recognizing these challenges 
early in the business life cycle can result in minimiz- 
ing taxes, smoothing management transition, and 
avoiding family conflict. 

Family businesses often do not formulate compre- 
hensive plans for dealing with succession issues. Fre- 
quently the entrepreneur is so busy with current 
challenges that he or she does not feel they can af- 
ford the time to address these issues. Unfortunately, 
this situation is like the woodcutter who cannot take 
the time to sharpen her saw because she is too far 
behind schedule cutting the wood. 

Comprehensive succession planning involves stra- 
tegic business planning, management succession 
planning, estate planning, entity (form of business) 
planning, and tax, finance, and insurance planning. 
The sophistication and complexity of this planning is 
contingent upon the size and complexity of the busi- 
ness, the financial needs of family members, and the 
current financial health of the business. 

The following checklist can provide a guideline 
for breaking this process down to manageable pieces. 
This will help to ensure that major concerns are not 

Current Owners' Wishes 

1. Current owners meet to discuss their objectives 
regarding transition of the business to family mem- 
bers and to outline their financial needs through 

2. Discuss strengths/weaknesses of second genera- 
tion family members expected to be involved in the 

3. Meet with attorneys and accountants to review 

current estate planning and to review alternatives 
for meeting financial objectives 

4. Consider: 

Gifting stock 

Establishing retirement plans 

Insurance funding 

Second generation stock purchase 

Updating current will 

Change of business form (proprietorship, 

partnership, LLC, C-corporation, S-corporation) 

Do not expect to reach final decisions at this 
point; the purpose of this phase is to identify some 
alternatives and to identify the issues that do not 
have ready solutions. 

After some time to consider the above alternatives 
and possible solutions, meet again with your advi- 
sors to map out a preliminary plan. 


1. Communicate your wishes regarding the future 
with the next generation 

2. Identify areas where the objectives of the next 
generation are in conflict with the "plan" 

3. Ensure that the next generation shares the "vision" 

4. Discuss the sale of the business as an alternative 
to the plan (This is an important step, as the appeal 
of continuing to manage the family business must be 
evaluated in contrast with the short-term financial 
rewards of a sale) 

Plan Implementation 

In conjunction with your lawyer, accountant, banker 
and insurance broker: 

1. Review current retirement plans (401k, profit- 


sharing, etc.) and modify as needed 

2. Determine the best way to finance the estate and 
income tax implications of the plan (compensation, 
life insurance, borrowing) 

3. Review and revise corporate documents governing 
authorized shares, stock restrictions, and manage- 
ment authority 

4. Develop a training and /or mentoring program for 
identified future family business leaders (Training 
can involve formal education, on-the-job training, or 
working for an unrelated business. Mentoring can in- 
volve outsiders or key managers who are not family 

5. Develop appropriate compensation programs for 
key nonfanuly members to avoid loss of key people 

6. Develop compensation guidelines for family mem- 
bers in the business 

7. Review your insurance portfolio, specifically 
regarding disability insurance and life insurance 
(to provide working capital for transition or funding 
for stock purchases) 

8. Communicate the plan to key employees (impor- 
tant employees are often lost due to concerns sur- 
rounding the unknown impact of business 

9. Consider the Board of Directors content and 
whether nonfamily members/advisors would be 

Congratulate Yourselves 

You have accomplished what few family businesses 
have managed to accomplish. Once a plan is estab- 
lished, it should be revisited every few years to con- 
firm that it is still an effective plan, consistent with 
changing business/family dynamics. 

Kirk Leoni is a certified public accountant with 
Nathan Wechsler and Company, 33 Pleasant Street, 
Concord, NH 03301-404. The phone number there is 

This article was furnished by the Business Forum 
Office (BFO) located at UNH in Room 116 of 
McConnell Hall. The BFO oversees a number of 
programs addressing the needs of businesses by way 
of forums and workshops. The Center for Family 
Business offers several membership programs: the 
Petiley Forum for the Family-owned Business, the 
Shapiro Forum for the Entrepreneurial Family, and 
the Leadership Development Program. For information 
about these and other programs that may be useful for 
your business, contact Peter Parady at 603-862-1107. 

Pioneer Pointers 

Is Your Business Ready for YZk? 

In today's increasingly computerized world, 
there is virtually no greenhouse operation that 
will not be affected in some way by the Year 
2000 a.k.a. Yak. No business can exist in a 
vacuum. Your operation is part of a chain of cus- 
tomers, suppliers, utilities, and vendors. As a re- 
sult, Yzk issues can affect you. 

Here are some things you can do to prepare 
and be ready for the next millennium: 
. Complete an inventory of all computer hard- 
ware, software, and telecommunication equip- 
ment. Include date of installation, name of 
manufacturer, and who currently services it. 
. Identify all greenhouse equipment and software 
with date-sensitive operating controls. Include 
time-set watering, planting, and/or heating sys- 
tems as well as accounting software. Is any 
equipment digitally controlled or set? If so, com- 
plete the same information listed above. 
. Identify all suppliers to key inputs to your 
business — seeds, pots, soil, fuel. 
. Contact your suppliers to verify that they can 
handle the change to January i, 2000, and be- 
yond. You should prioritize based on a system's 
importance to your business. If your business 
can not survive without it, do not assume it will 
be unaffected by the millennium bug. 
. If your suppliers cannot certify that they or 
their equipment , software, or services are Year 
2000 compliant, have a plan to correct or replace 
key systems. Don't leave it to chance. 

While Y2k has the potential to be a serious 
business challenge if not properly managed, 
there are good solutions for possible problems. 
Time is on your side: address the issue now 
rather than wait until the last moment, (sw) 

First Pioneer Farm Credit, being a financial 
services provider, is working very hard to ensure 
that our Green Industry customers avoid any 
business disruption from Yik. We're checking all 
our electronics systems from telephone and fax 
machines to complex loan-accounting software. 
All our AgCHECK and Red Wing farm accounting 
software is Year 2000 compliant and we stand 
ready to assist you in bringing your own account- 
ing software up-to-date. For more information, 
give us a call in Bedford at 1-800-82^-^252. 



Fanciful Habitat 

Bungay Jar" — the expression could be 
Abenaki — or Scottish — or North Country 
New Hampshire: "a mysterious rumbling 
sound emanating from the depths of Mount 
Kinsman, thought to have made early settlers queer in 
the head;" "a phantom roar that accompanies a strong 
spring wind moving up the Easton Valley toward 
Franconia." And now "Bungay Jar" is a bed and break- 
fast on the Easton Valley Road and these definitions 
are part of the copy on a promotional T-shirt. 

The B&B is in a 200-year-old 40'x40' barn brought 
from Littleton in 1967, set into a hillside, then aban- 
doned. When bought in 1983 by Kate Kerivan and her 
husband Lee Strimbeck, a patent attorney who brought 
his practice to Littleton because he liked to hike, there 
was no heat and ceilings were falling. 

Within this structure, they've created seven rooms, 
each with a private bath, on four levels around a cen- 
tral core. Each room is unique: "The Hobbit Room" has 
an antique sleigh bed; "The Stargazer Suite," twig fur- 
niture. And each is filled with decorative objects ac- 
centing its special flavor. 

Kate's background includes a degree in plant science 
from UNH and a graduate degree in landscape plan- 
ning and design from the Conway School (Conway, 
Massachusetts). She ran her own design business in 
Derry and worked in city planning in Manchester. In 
Easton, she began immediately to create a garden. 

Behind the B&B, the land slopes down to the Ham 
branch of the Gale River before beginning its climb to 
Kinsman Ridge. Most rooms open onto balconies or 
terraces; all have fine views. 

But in 1983, woods came up to the back of the 
building — branches touched the windows and the 
ridgeline could not be seen. Kate started with the ba- 
sics. She hired a logger to clearcut; the slope was re- 
shaped into a series of gentle terraces. Trees — focal 
points — were planted. 

The plan is simple: a walkway descends from the 
building to a pool centered in open lawn. Three-and- 
one-half-feet deep, butyl-lined, with a small pump re- 
cycling the water — this small circular body of water, 
framed by a patio on which guests can sit (which in 

turn is framed by plantings) is the garden's focal point. 

One line of plantings — nearer and parallel to the 
B&B creates a sheltered upper lawn. Another group of 
plantings cluster in a parallel area centered around the 
pool. On the right, the lawn rises to a birch-shaded 
path that skirts a wildflower meadow, then leads into 
surrounding woodlands and to the river. 

Locally quarried granite is used in walks, stairs, re- 
taining walls, sitting areas. Strimbeck did most of the 
masonry work, placing larger pieces with block-and- 

CRAB APPLES on either side of the main walkway 
create a bower; honeysuckle climbs a rustic per- 
gola, as does a native clematis. Climbing roses never 
quite make it to the top in the brief growing season 
(although shrub roses elsewhere — 'William Baffin,' 
'John Cabot' — are a fine success). The walk beneath the 
pergola leads to the path skirting the meadow. 

These shaded walks alongside areas of sun increase 
the range of mood. The plant material is eclectic, but 
feels natural — those surviving the winters work well 

Some plants surprise (it's zone 3): a lotus survived 
in the pool for six years, but finally succumbed — not to 
cold, but to careful and sensitive repotting. Water lihes 
(Nymphaea 'Pink Sensation') grow in tubs. 

Most material is less exotic. Kate uses natives: vibur- 
nums, red-twigged dogwood, clethra. Canadian burnet 
(Sanguisorba canadensis) borders the pool; Culver's-root 
(Veronocastrum virginicum), mullein (Verbascum thapsus), 
black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and May apple 
(Podophyllum peltatum) are scattered throughout. 
Lowbush blueberry is groundcover. 

Near the pool, jack-in-the-pulpit and Ligularia 
przewalskii 'The Rocket' flourish in a bog garden made 
of peat and llama dung (there are several llamas on the 
place, as well as dogs, horses, and at least one cat). 

Vines — all annual: cup-and-saucer (Cobaea scan- 
dens) — her favorite, hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab), 
morning glory — climb the rail fence around the cutting 
garden; sweet peas are "planted faithfully each April 



15, but they never get going until July." 

Among all these are hardy perennials — lupine, 
asclepia, ageratum 'blue horizon,' Johnson's Blue 
cranesbill. Annuals — Datura metel, larkspur, cleome, 
poppies — fill in. Terra-cotta pots "are moved around 
like furniture." 

The rest of the twelve acres are woods. These are 
tended in their own way. Some areas are mowed; some 
trees removed. Chosen plants — trillium, lady slipper, 
Canadian mayflower, goldthread (Coptis groenlandka), 
sassafras, moosewood (^4. pensylvanicutn) — are encour- 
aged; columbine seed scattered. The stages of succes- 
sion created allows a range of material to thrive. 

KATE'S TAKEN PART in the New Hampshire Co- 
verts Project. Funded by UNH Cooperative Exten- 
sion, NH Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife, and 
the Ruffed Grouse Society, this is a volunteer education 
and outreach program in which 25 people are selected 
each year to attend a training workshop that teaches 
management practices that enhance wildlife habitat. 
These people then become Coverts Project Cooperators 
and share with their communities what they've 

The Projects' ideals mirrors her own: "People move 
up here — they clearcut an acre, put a house in the cen- 
ter, plant a rhododendron, a couple yews . . . then step 
back and say, "Hey, this isn't what we came for.' I'd 
like to write about using what's here and incorporating 
appropriate material — just a simple pamphlet — and 
give copies to local real estate agents to give to clients." 

She doesn't want to expand the B&B, just find ways 
to fill it during offseason. Classes (weekend garden 
workshops) and special activities (a "Midsummer's Eve 
Magic Garden Celebration" — which included picking 
herbs and fern-seed, visiting the animals, a candlelit 
buffet meal, and a reading from Shakespeare's play — 
an evening definitely not for the serious-minded) have 
been held; marketing emphasizes events like the tri- 
town lupine festival held each June. 

"But I really want to be outdoors." Any money- 
making activities should "connect with what's already 
here, with what makes being here so interesting . . ." 

What makes being here interesting for Kate is her 
garden and in 1997, she decided to create a retail nurs- 
ery — Bungay Jardins — offering unusual and native 
plants, some of which she'd propagate herself. The 
Littleton Courier described what the enterprise hoped to 
be: "the nursery will offer hundreds of culinary and 
ornamental herbs, flowering native and introduced her- 
baceous perennials, vines, antique shrub roses, and old- 
fashioned cottage garden plants. Garden whimsies in- 
clude wobble gates, white cedar raised beds, butterfly 
and bird houses, trellises and faux antique containers." 

Under the assumption that retail sale of this mate- 
rial was permitted under "agriculture" in the Easton 
zoning ordinance, Bungay Jardins opened on May 10. 

The Easton Board of Selectmen, which regulates 
land-use decisions, decided that the business could not 
be permitted under "agriculture" and advised Kerivan 
to apply for a special exception. They then rejected the 
application, arguing that the fact that she'd applied for 
a special exemption showed that Bungay Jardins was 
not a legitimate agricultural enterprise: "Retail sale of 
plant material is not agriculture. This definition would 
mean that Butson's Supermarket, which sells plants de- 
livered by truck to its store in Littleton, is a horticul- 
tural enterprise and not a market." 

Kerivan and Strimbeck appealed the decision in 
Littleton District Court. In July, Judge Peter Cyr backed 
the selectmen. 

They then hired a second lawyer, Larry Gardener, 
who asked that the board reverse its decision. At the 
hearing before the Zoning Board of Adjustment (after a 
stand-in was found for the selectman who also serves 
on Easton's board of adjustment), abutters described 
the nursery as a safety hazard and a commercial intru- 
sion. Easton's approved uses for agricultural businesses 
were admitted to be exceptionally narrow — "but that's 
how the local population wants it." 

The decision was once again against Bungay Jardins 
and the case was brought to Superior Court, where it 
was decided in its favor. 

And it's not over yet — Kerivan and Strimbeck are 
suing the town for harassment and damages. This suit 
may also end up in Superior Court. 

Having not heard both sides, one prefers the idea 
that land-owners can do pretty much as they choose 
within generously interpreted guidelines, but one has 
to admit the neighbor's view is definitely less pastoral. 

THE NURSERY is small— a few benches— bedding 
plants, vegetables — many unusual, most bought 
in — set on an area of bark mulch in front of the new 
construction. Kate admits her energy has gone into 
other things: it has not been a good year. 

But the construction — of what is to be a 25'xl7' 
shop — is already a mix of the fantasy and pragmatism 
that animates the best of the property: it incorporates 
"two-hundred-year-old beams from a bam that had al- 
ready been torn down;" it has eleven-foot ceilings ("I 
insisted"). The structure will double as a classroom — 
besides plant material, product offered include a way 
of seeing. This will require education. 

A greenhouse — "small, straight-sided, probably poly- 
carbonate"— will attach to the rear of the structure. 
Kate plans to have it in operation this winter and is 
looking at how to best use the space. Propagating un- 



usual material to be sold through a mail order business 
(her customer base has never been local) seems to 
mesh nicely with her overall situation. The mix is still 

REGARDLESS OF THE eventual use of the garden 
center or the outcome of the suit pending, the gar- 
dens remain genuinely impressive. Their beauty 
shows clearly that gardening in the North Country 
can be sophisticated and serious — good information 

for both home-owners and summer people and for 
all the landscapers and garden centers who offer 
their services. (BP) 

Bungay far, PO Box 15, Easton Valley Road, Fraiiconia, 
NH 03580, can be reached by phone at 1-800-421-0701. 
It's on the Web at <>; its email ad- 
dress is <>. 

For information about the Coverts Project, contact 
Ellen Snyder at 603-862-3594. 



150 acres of quality plants 
Wnte for catalog 
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Millers Falls Road. Turners Falls, MA 01376 
Telephone 413 863 25 1 




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Wreaths ^ Trees * Boughs ^ Cones 

Over 300 Members • Over 250 Growers 
• Christmas Trees • Christmas Wreaths 
• 40 Years of Service 

For a FREE brochure 
of wholesale producers and vendors contact: 

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53 Heath Road, Wolcott, VT 05680-3088 

(802) 888-7255 


Planning Market Strategy 


You may consider marketing to be the biggest 
thorn in your side or the most exciting part 
of your business. Either way, if you offer a 
product or service for sale, marketing is a key part 
of your business operation and deserves a significant 
portion of your attention. 

Keep this in mind: Growing your product is the 
easy part. Selling your product is the challenge. 

Often, when people are considering starting an ag- 
ricultural business, it seems that most of their plan- 
ning and preparations are focused on production and 
not much thought is devoted to marketing. Certainly 
production is not a trivial part of an agricultural 
business, but selling does not happen by itself. A 
business plan must include a plan for marketing as 
well as for production. 

Marketing is an endless cyclic process that in- 
cludes finding out what the customer wants/needs 
and providing it at a profit to the seller. The basics 
of marketing are the same whether you sell plants, 
cheese, or microchips. The key elements of marketing 
are known as the "marketing mix", also sometimes 
called the "3 Ps and a D:" 

• Product (what makes it unique) 

• Price (value) 

• Promotion (telling the customer about the 

• Distribution (how you get your product to 

Your goal is to find the optimum combination of 
this marketing mix to maximize profits. Start by do- 
ing some research and analysis to help identify and 
define your market: 

What is unique about your product(s)? How is 
your product going to stand apart from the rest? 

Who are your customers? What do they want? 
Will your product have broad appeal or be spe- 
cific to a certain audience? 

Who is your competition? 

Evaluate your location. Where are you located and 
how will that effect your business? 

How will you promote your product? How will 

you let people know about your unique products? 
What price will you charge for your product? 
How will price effect your product's appeal? 

Research and analysis are absolutely critical to 
substantially reduce trial-and-error, saving you time 
and money. Research can pinpoint the prospective 
target audience, identify any product modifications, 
and help design pricing, promotion, and distribution 
strategies. The customer is a key component of any 
marketing strategy. Your marketing efforts should 
target the customer most likely to buy your product. 
You must know and understand everything about 
your customer so that your products meet his/her 
goals, objectives, wants, and needs. Remember, it's 
not what you sell that counts, but what people want 
to buy. Research will help you understand and meet 
your customer's needs. 

Determining potential outlets for your products 
will help you define your target customer. Potential 
market outlets for greenhouse and nursery plants in- 

• Direct-to-consumer sales at your location 

• Sales to other retailers, garden centers, 
supermarkets/home centers, or florists 

• Wholesale flower market 

• Farmers' markets 

• Contract growing 

• Landscapers/landscape designers 

• Municipalities 

Each outlet category involves a different set of re- 
quirements. For example, selling to the consumer at 
your location means you are in a relatively accessible 
location and you provide things like adequate park- 
ing, staff for customer assistance, carts or wagons for 
easy moving of plants, information about plant care 
and use, related products, etc. Selling to other retail- 
ers means in addition to some of the above men- 
tioned, you are also likely involved with trucking or 
shipping products. To sell to landscapers, you might 
need to carry more mature, fully grown plants to 
create finished landscapes. 

Another important component of market strategy 


is to build your company's name recognition. This is 
also known as image building. Participation in and/ 
or sponsorship of community events, industry trade 
shows, and special events help to keep your name in 
front of your customer and potential customer. Some 
of these events may have a very peripheral connec- 
tion to your business, but they help your customer 
see and understand your community relationship 
and spirit. 

You don't have to develop a marketing strategy 
all by yourself. Help is available from many different 
sources, including private marketing consultants, 
groups such as the Service Corps of Retired Execu- 
tives (SCORE), and governmental agencies such as 
the small business development centers. Small Busi- 
ness Administration, and Cooperative Extension. If 
you need more background in marketing principles, 
start by reading some books on the subject to begin to 
understand the concepts and common terminology. 

Love or hate it, marketing is essential to any busi- 
ness. Make it an integral part of your business plan 
for a strong future. 

Gail D. McWilliam is director of agricultural develop- 
ment, NH Department of Agriculture, Markets and Food. 
She can be reached at 603-271-3788. 

Could any of these current issues 
impact your business or livelihood? 

* Current Use & Zoning 

• Greenhouse taxation 

* Pesticide regulations 
* Motor Vehicle laws & Ag 

* Agricultural employee laws 

New Hampshire Farm Bureau 

has, over the years, led the way on legislative 
issues that affect New Hampshire's farms and 
agricultural businesses. We will continue to 
do so Into the future and hope to involve more 
of you, our friends & colleagues involved In 
horticulture in N.H. 

If you answered yes to the question above 
and would like more information on what 
benefits Joining N.H.F.B. will bring to you, 
please contact: 

Wendle Loomis at 224-1934 
Sponsored by Merrimack County Farm Bureau 


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The Art of Miniatures 


The art of creating a container 
herb garden is just that — an 
art! It's of increasing interest for 
many herb gardeners because of 
space limitations, because it's an 
easier way to care for more diffi- 
cult-to-grow plants, and — most of 
all, because of all the interesting 
plants and combinations that are 
super for this form of gardening. 

Creating a container garden re- 
quires knowing cultural require- 
ments as well as having an eye 
for relationships — the relationship 
between flower, foliage, and form; 
the relationship between plants 
and container; the relationship be- 
tween the containers themselves. 
One nice thing about container 
gardening is the ability to easily 
move things around until you're 
satisfied with the results. 

Options for containers are un- 
limited. We'll not address this 
here except to suggest that you 
consider anything as a container: 
familiar terra-cotta pots and stone 
urns always work; rustic baskets, 
containers made of wood or twigs, 
wine crates, whiskey barrels, and 
hollowed logs and stumps (for 
shade-loving woodland herbs) all 
make great planters. 

The most important cultural 
considerations are proper soil for 
each individual plant and proper 
drainage for each container. The 
latter generally means a drainage 
hole in the bottom of the con- 
tainer (do not cover this with pot 
shards, as we did in the "old 
days:" this actually obstructs 
drainage). Herbs hate wet feet, so 
good drainage, especially for out- 

door plants enduring summer 
rains, is critical. There are several 
new products — the pot-watering 
polymers — on the market for pro- 
viding moisture to plants: present 
these possibilities to your custom- 
ers who are shopping for their 
container gardens. 

The herbs for containers are 
many: here are just a few ideas. 
Thymes are perfect: try silvery grey 
creeping wooly thyme (Thymus 
praecox subsp. articus 'Lanuginosus'), 
crimson thyme with brilliant ma- 
genta flowers (T.p. subsp. 'Coccineus'), 
caraway thyme with tiny tasty 
leaves (T. herba-barona), and white 
moss creeping thyme (T.p. subsp. 
articus 'Albus'). There's also the 
very tiny creeper. Thymus minimus, 

continued on next page 

Newton Greenhouse 

32 Amesbury Road, Newton, NH 03858 

Quality Plants 
green & flowering 

from 3" to 10" pots 

Holiday, bedding plants &. dish gardens 

Year-round cut Snaps, Gloxinias & African Violets 

Liscensed propagator 
of Mikkelsen New Guinea Impatiens 

75 Chestnut Hill, Route 190 
Stafford Springs, CT 06076 


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Plants Bulbs 

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'Our Goal Is Your Success' 

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NH & Maine Representative 

CT 800-243-7170 
Fax: 860-684-3022 



continued from page 17 

and Doretta Klaber thyme (T. vul- 
garis 'Doretta Klaber') that grow 
with tiny leaves in a neat flat mat 
that creeps easily over the side of 
a container. German thyme and 
French thyme are both well-be- 
haved small bushy plants that 
blend well with the creepers in 
containers. These and many other 
thymes can be found at Rabbit 
Shadow farm, 2880 East Highway 
402, Loveland, CO 80537. The price 
list is $1, refimdable with an order. 
Small scented geraniums like 
lemon crispum, nutmeg, and 
strawberry are good choices. Tri- 
color sage and golden sage, with 
their variegated foliage, tend to 
remain smaller than ordinary sage 
and love growing in containers. 
These two are not always hardy 
in our winters and like to be 

brought inside — and a container 
makes that easy. Consider color- 
ful miniature peppers such as 
Thai Hots to liven up your con- 
tainer arrangements. 

A lemon-scented selection 
could include separate pots of 
lemon thyme, lemon balm (which 
will remain smaller in a con- 
tainer), lemon verbena, lemon ba- 
sil (wimpy and difficult in the 
garden; easier in a pot), a lemon 
geranium — all these massed in 
smaller pots in front of a large 
pot of tall lemon grass. I like this 
idea so much I just want to run 
out and do it right now! 

Green santolina (Santolina virens) — 
mounds of bright green, finely 
cut foliage with lemon yellow 
button flowers — and grey santo- 
lina (S. chamaecyparissus) are good 
container plants. They grow large, 
but are easily clipped and kept 

within their potted boundaries. I 
like grey santolina and colorful 
violas (Johnny jump-ups) in a pot 
on my porch. There's a small new 
blue-and-white viola called "Cutie," 
whose flowers peek charmingly 
through the grey foliage and are so 
cheery and impish that 1 cannot help 
but smile at them each morning. 

These are but a few. When com- 
bining pots and plants, consider 
the form, foliage, texture, and color 
of each herb separately, then begin 
to envision a variety of combina- 
tions. Tailor the soil to the plants 
and move them to where they get 
the proper amount of sun. Easy 
gardening! Let the artist in you 
take over, encourage your custom- 
ers to do the same, and have fun 
with herbs in containers. 

Tanya Jackson, well-known area herbal- 
ist, can he reached at 603-431-8011. 


The Professional Landscaper, 

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"^ Represented by; 

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Charter Oak Landscape 
29 Mountain Terrace Road 
West Hartford, CT 06107 
Toll Free 1-800-431-6625 
or 1-860-521-2638 
Fax 1-860-561-4130 

Professional * Experienced * Dedicated 


P.O. Box 579 • 1300 Grove Street 
Charles City, Iowa 50616-0579 
1-800-747-5980 or 1-515-228-1124 
Fax 1-800-361-7759 
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1619 Mam Sireel 20 Grandview Court 50 WesI Gray Road 4 Airport Park Boulevard 1 Ellis Drive 2 Corporate Drrve 5612 Pride Road 

Tev»ksburv, MA 01876 Cheshire, CT 06410 Gray. ME 04039 Latham, NY 121 10 Auburn. NY 13021 Cranbury. NJ 08512 Richmond. VA 23224 

Phone 978-851-4346 Phone:203-699-0919 Phone 207-657-5442 Phone 518-786-3500 Phone:315-255-1450 Phone 609-409-9399 Phone:804-233-3454 

FAX 978-851-0012 FAX: 203-699-9615 FAX 207-657-5439 FAX 518-786-3586 FAX: 315-255-0580 FAX 809-409-9360 FAX e04-233-8855 





15-16 Belknap County Fair, Mile Hill Road, Belmont; Sue Roberts at 


21-23 Cornish Fair; Robert Bladen at 542-4622 


2-7 Lancaster Fair, US Route 3, Lancaster; Paul Thurston at 


3-7 Hopkinton State Fair, Contoocook Fairgrounds, Contoocook; 
Alan Hardy at 746-4191 

11-13 Hillsboro County Agricultural Fair, Route 13, New Boston; 
John Robertson at 588-6106 

18-26 Rochester Fair, 11 Lafayette Street, Rochester; Jeffrey Taylor at 


1-4 Deerfield Fair, Route 43, Deerfield; Jane Boucher at 463-7421 
10-12 Sandwich Fair, Center Sandwich; Richard Papen at 284-7062 

(Telephone area codes are 603.) 

Association Officers 



670 N. Commercial Street 

Manchester, NH 03101 




PO Box 476, Rte. 137 S., Hancock, NH 03449 


Secretan/ / Treasurer 


UNH/TSAS Horticultural Facilities 

Durham, NH 03824 




656 S. Mammoth Road, Manchester, NH 03103 



61 Squamscott Road, Stratham, NH 03885 



4 KaracuU Lane, Pittsfield, NH 03263 



7316 Pleasant Street, Loudon, NH 03301 



4 James Road, Deerfield, NH 03037 



37 Lake Street, Salem, NH 03079 


Extensiofi Liaison 


113 North Road, Brentwood, NH 03833 


Alternate Member 


324 Howard Street, Northboro, MA 01532 


The Plantsman Editor 
UNH Research Greenhouses 
Durham, NH 03824